Nerve guidance channels (NGCs) promote cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions occurring within the nanoscale. However, studies focusing on the effects of nanophase topography on neural cell functions are limited, and mostly concentrated on the sub-micron level (>100 nm) surface topography. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fabricate <100 nm sized structures on poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) films used in NGC applications to assess the effects of nanophase topography on neural cell functions. For this purpose, nanopit surface arrays were fabricated on PLGA surfaces via replica molding method. The results showed that neural cell proliferation increased up to 65% and c-fos protein expression increased up to 76% on PLGA surfaces having nanophase surface arrays compared to the control samples. It was observed that neural cells spread to a greater extend and formed more neurite extensions on the nanoarrayed surfaces compared to the control samples. These results were correlated with increased hydrophilicity and roughness of the nanophase PLGA surfaces, and point toward the promise of using nanoarrayed surfaces in NGC applications.