In the current study, we investigated the phytochemical and neuropharmacological potential of Indigofera sessiliflora, an indigenous least characterized plant widely distributed in deserted areas of Pakistan. The crude extract of the whole plant Indigofera sessiliflora (IS.CR) was preliminary tested in-vitro for the existence of polyphenol content, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential followed by detailed chemical characterization through UHPLC-MS. Rats administered with different doses of IS.CR (100-300 mg/kg) for the duration of 4-weeks were behaviorally tested for anxiety and cognition followed by biochemical evaluation of dissected brain. The in-silico studies were employed to predict the blood-brain barrier crossing tendencies of secondary metabolites with the elucidation of the target binding site. The in-vitro assays revealed ample phenols and flavonoids content in IS.CR with adequate anti-oxidant and anti cholinesterase potential. The dose-dependent anxiolytic potential of IS.CR was demonstrated in open field (OFT), light/dark (L/D) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests as animals spent more time in open, illuminated and elevated zones (P < 0.05). In the behavioral tests for learning/memory, the IS.CR reversed the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits, as animals showed better (P < 0.05) spontaneous alternation and discrimination index in y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Similarly, as compared to amnesic rats, the step-through latencies were increased (P < 0.05) and escape latencies were decreased (P < 0.05) in passive avoidance (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests, respectively. Biochemical analysis of rat brains showed significant reduction in malondialdehyde and acetylcholinesterase levels, alongwith preservation of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. The docking studies further portrayed a possible interaction of detected phytoconstituents with acetylcholinesterase target. The results of the study show valuable therapeutic potential of phytoconstituents present in IS.CR to correct the neurological disarrays which might be through antioxidant activity or via modulation of GABAergic and cholinergic systems by artocommunol, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin and 6E,9E-octadecadienoic acid. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).